Lithium-Ion-Battery the most common type of EV Battery | Understanding the different types of Battery
Even though the lithium-ion battery has established itself as the favored choice for electric vehicles, there are alternative technologies available on the market today. Some are extremely old, such as lead acid batteries, while others, such as Lithium-ion batteries, are quite recent. Nowadays, we have a variety of commercially successful EV vehicles, including sport and economical ones.
The design of a battery pack is intimately connected to the performance of an electric vehicle, so let us see the comparison of several battery technologies utilized in the automotive industry today in this article.
Gaston Plante, a French physicist, devised the rechargeable lead battery in 1859, a device used to store energy via electrochemical processes. Since then, it has made significant progress, with all scientific effort aiming to discover the greatest possible balance between the battery’s weight, storage capacity, production costs, longevity, recharging capability, and environmental effect, particularly when it comes time to recycle it.
How does a standard battery work?
So we all know how batteries are utilized in practically all of the products we use in our everyday lives, and how the chemical energy contained in a battery is turned to electricity. The battery is made up of a negative electrode cell with an excess of electrons, which are negatively charged subatomic particles. When an electrical connection links the two, electrons move from the negative to the positive.
Companies today have devised a method to use the energy generated by these traveling electrons to power a motor. Because it powers the vehicle’s engine, it must give enough current to the motor throughout time.
Does this batteries have an expiration date?
Unfortunately, the battery has an expiration date and will start dying after a few years if there is no electric flow between the electrodes. There is no current flow when the number of electrons on the positive and negative sides is the same. During this time, the battery expires and must be replaced with a new battery.
The several types of Electric Vehicle batteries:
- Lithium Ion Battery
- Hybrid Nickel Metal Battery
- Lead Acid Battery
- Solid State Battery
- Nickel Cadmium Battery and
- Nickel Metal Hydride Battery
The vehicle’s system governs the many types of electric car batteries accessible. The Lithium-ion battery is the most common type of electric vehicle battery. For hybrid electric cars, the hybrid nickel metal battery is the best option.
The lithium-ion battery was the most widely used electric vehicle battery. It was developed in the early 1990s and progressively established itself as the dominant technology in the transportation and consumer electronics industries. You may be familiar with it because smaller versions of it are utilized in portable devices such as mobile phones and even laptop computers. Nevertheless, the ones used in automobiles are significantly larger and have a higher capacity, and are known as traction battery packs.
Because lithium-ion batteries have a very high power-to-weight ratio, automobiles are more energy efficient. Under high temperatures, the battery operates relatively better than others. This is mostly employed because of its energy per weight ratio, which is an important aspect in electric car batteries.
Since lithium-ion batteries have better energy densities than lead acid batteries or nickel metal hydride batteries, they may be made smaller while preserving the same store capacity. In other words, the lighter the battery, the further the automobile can travel on a single charge.
The battery also has a low self discharge level, which means it may keep its charge longer than the other options. Also, the majority of lithium-ion battery components may be recycled. This is advantageous for electric vehicles because they are designed with the goal of preserving the environment in mind. They are most commonly seen in plug-in hybrids and battery electric cars.
- The functioning of a Lithium-Ion Battery
A battery is made up of an anode, a cathode, a separator, an electrolyte, and two current collectors, one positive and one negative. The lithium is stored in the anode and cathode. Via the separator, the electrolyte transports positively charged lithium ions from the anode to the cathode. The mobility of the lithium ions in the anode generates free electrons, which generates a charge at the positive current collector.
The electrical current passes from the current collector to the negative current collector via a device operated by a mobile phone or computer, for example the separator prevents electrons from flowing within the battery. The lithium-ion battery works on the idea of circulating electrons by establishing a potential difference between two electrodes, one negative and one positive, submerged in a conductive ionic liquid called the electrolyte. When a device is powered by the battery, electrons stored in the negative electrode are released via an external circuit and go to the positive electrode. This is the phase of discharge.
When the battery is charging, the energy supplied by the charger transports electrons from the positive electrode to the negative electrode. The various battery types differ in terms of ion types, electrode materials, and related electrolytes. The 12 volt lead acid battery, for example, that has historically been used to power the starter of a combustion engine vehicle relies on an electrolyte containing lead ions and lead-based electrodes. The lithium-ion battery is powered by lithium ions, hence the name given to this technology
A lithium-ion battery, such as the one used in the Renault Zoe, is composed of separate battery units or cells that are linked and monitored by a specific electronic circuit. The number of cells, the size of each cell, and the arrangement of the cells influence both the voltage provided by the battery and its capacity, which is the amount of power it can store. In the automobile sector, this is usually expressed in watt hours or kilowatt hours.
- Advantages of Lithium-Ion Battery
As electric automobiles indicate, lithium-ion batteries are improving. Lightweight lithium-ion batteries were first employed correctly in electric vehicles in the pioneering tesla roadster made from 2008 to 2012. It took around 3.5 hours to charge its 6831 lithium ion batteries, which weighed 1100 pounds and stored 53 kilowatt hours of energy. They were completely charged and provided the automobile with a range of more than 220 miles.
Newer Tesla’s feature better cells and a wider range. A normal Tesla Model 3 has a 75 kilowatt-hour battery, which is half the amount of energy as a roadster, which has 4416 cells and a range of 374 miles.
- Disadvantages of Lithium-Ion Battery
1. It is susceptible to high temperatures.
2. It is relatively costly to recharge a battery that has been entirely depleted.
The nickel metal hydride battery
Another type of electric vehicle is a hybrid vehicle, which has both battery-powered and gasoline-powered engines. These vehicles mostly employ hybrid nickel metal batteries, which are also compatible with battery electric vehicles. These batteries do not need an external power source to charge. The charge of the battery is mostly determined by the vehicle’s regenerative braking speed and wheels. Nickel metal batteries have a longer life cycle than lithium ion batteries and are safer in case of harsh usage.
These batteries, however, have a greater self-discharge rate, are substantially more costly, and create significant amounts of heat in high temperatures, as is frequent in a car. Because of these few drawbacks, nickel metal batteries are a poor choice for a vehicle whose batteries must be charged from an external source. This is also why these batteries are employed in hybrid vehicles, with performance comparable to nickel cadmium technology. Because of the absence of heavy metals, nickel metal hydride accumulators have found more sustained success.
During the start of the 2000s, this portable rechargeable battery technology was the most cost-effective. It dominated the hybrid car industry until the introduction of lithium-ion technology. Nickel metal hydride batteries, which are often used in computer and medical devices, have adequate specific energy and specific power capacities. Nickel metal hydride batteries have a substantially longer life cycle than lead acid batteries and are safer and more resistant to misuse.
- Advantages of Nickel Metal Hydride Battery
1. Double energy density compared to lead acid batteries
2. Harmless to the environment
3. Easily recyclable
4. Safe operation at high voltage
5. It can store volumetric power and energy
6. Cycle life is longer operating temperature range is long and
7. It is resistant to overcharge and discharge
- Disadvantages of Nickel Metal Hydride Battery
1. If discharged quickly on high load currents, the lifespan is shortened by 200 to 300 cycles.
2. High self-discharge and heat production at high temperatures, as well as decreased useable power due to the memory effect
Lead acid battery
Lead acid batteries are one of the earliest types of rechargeable batteries and may still be used in many cars with both combustion and electric motors. The electric car legiumais contente, which used this technology, was the first automobile to achieve 100 kilometers per hour in 1899, significantly ahead of combustion engine cars. They are much heavier than hybrid nickel metal or lithium batteries and gradually lose capacity. Yet, vehicle manufactures continue to employ it mostly because to its low cost.
Furthermore, because they have been used for the longest period, the technology around the fitting and more efficiently utilising the batteries has progressed, resulting in a superior end product. Lead acid batteries are no longer utilized for propulsion, but rather to power the electrical circuits of combustion engine accessories or components such as the starter. Despite their large size and weight, lead acid batteries have a limited capacity but are affordable to create and recycle. It was utilized as the principal energy storage device for electric automobiles until the 1980s, when it was swiftly surpassed by more efficient technologies.
- Advantages of Lead Acid Battery
1. It is available in production volume
2. Comparatively low in cost and
3. It was mature technology as used for over 50 years
- Disadvantages of Lead Acid Battery
1. It cannot discharge more than 20 percent of its capacity
2. It has a limited life cycle if operated on a deep rate of state of charge
3. Low energy and power density
4. It is heavier and it may need maintenance
Scientific research has long been interested in the concept of the solid-state battery. Yet, it has only been in the last ten years that advancement has allowed for the technology’s acceptance by the automobile industry in the far future. The basic idea is to replace the battery’s liquid electrolyte with a solid substance, which can be a plastic polymer crushed in organic granules or a blend of the two.
In principle, this technology is entirely favorable; it allows for greater energy density and stability while also making temperature management more controllable. Nonetheless, the solid state is still in the laboratory prototype stage, and the lithium ion battery has a long life ahead of it.
- Advantages of Solid-State Battery
1. These batteries are capable of delivering 2.5 times more energy density as compared to lithium-ion batteries
2. These are comparatively more durable and safe
3. Less expensive and compact in nature
4. The recharge rate of solid state batteries is four to six times more than regular ones
5. The greater electrochemical stability of these batteries make them more reliable
- Disadvantages of Solid-State Battery
The mass production and manufacturing of these batteries are quite complex
research of solid-state batteries is still in progress and the perfect material for the electrolyte with an ideal ionic conductivity is yet to be found
Nickel Cadmium Battery
Nickel cadmium technology is recognizable to anybody who used rechargeable batteries in the 1990s. Nickel cadmium accumulators have several advantages, including high storage density and a lifespan of 500 to 1000 charging cycles.
They did, however, suffer from the memory effect, a physical phenomena in which the battery’s performance degrades when subjected to partial charge discharge cycles. Nickel cadmium batteries, which were employed in the construction of electric cars in the 1990s, are now outlawed owing to cadmium toxicity.
- Advantages of Nickel Cadmium Battery
1. Long lifetime
2. It can discharge fully without being damaged and
3. It is easily recyclable
- Disadvantages of Nickel Cadmium Battery
Cadmium can cause pollution in case of not being properly disposed and
it is costly for vehicular application. So, what are your opinions on these batteries? Which are the greatest battery solutions for improving EV performance? Please share your thoughts in the comments.
FAQ’s On Lithium-Ion Battery
Q1. What is a lithium-ion battery?
A lithium-ion battery is a form of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move between the negative (anode) and positive (cathode) electrodes to charge and drain the battery.
Q2. How does a lithium-ion battery work?
The movement of the lithium ions in the anode generates free electrons, which generates a charge at the positive current collector. The electrical current then travels from the current collector to the negative current collector via an enabled device for example cell phone.
Q3. What is special about lithium-ion batteries?
Lithium-ion batteries charge faster, last longer, and have a higher power density for more battery life in a lighter package than traditional battery technology. When you understand how they work, you can make them work even better for you.
Q4. What is a lithium-ion battery and what are they used for?
Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are used in vaping devices, many personal gadgets such as mobile phones, iPads, and computers, E-Bikes, electric toothbrushes, tools, hoverboards, scooters, and solar power backup storage.
Q5. What is a lithium-ion battery made of?
Li-ion batteries comprise of lithium metal oxides in the positive electrode, where lithium ions can be kept, and carbon in the negative electrode. Lithium salts dissolved in organic carbonates are used as the electrolyte. Lithium-ion batteries operate via the transfer of lithium ions in two phases.
Q6. Where do lithium batteries come from?
The US gets most of its lithium-ion batteries from China, and also sources large volumes from South Korea and Japan. However, there is a massive, unregulated market for battery packs in the United States, which presents a task to regulators and a risk to customers.
Q7. What heavy metals are in lithium batteries?
Heavy Metals in Lithium Ion Batteries. Metals such as cobalt, copper, and nickel appear in large quantities in many instances. A large number of trace element metals can also reach toxic levels if batteries are discarded in large enough quantities in a small enough area.
Q8. What rare material is in lithium batteries?
Cobalt, a bluish-gray metal found in the Earth’s crust, is one of the most commonly used components in the production of lithium-ion batteries, which power computers, mobile phones, and electric vehicles.
Q9. Do lithium batteries cause pollution?
Metals found in lithium-ion batteries, such as cobalt, nickel, and manganese, are toxic and can pollute water sources and habitats if they seep out of landfills. Furthermore, fires in dumps or battery-recycling sites have been linked to improper lithium-ion battery disposal.
Q10. Is lithium toxic to touch?
Lithium and Lithium Compounds Are Dangerous. It is corrosive to skin and other metals, toxic if consumed in large amounts, and emits toxic vapors when burned.